The Meaning of the Tetragrammaton
This is four Hebrew letters (Yod, He, Waw and He) called the "Tetragrammaton".
The four characters are the four Hebrew letters that correspond to YHWH and are
transliterated IAUE or Yahuah. Yahuah is the name of the Almighty Father in
Heaven that people commonly call "The LORD" or "God". The
reason we see "LORD" and "God" in our bibles is because of a
Jewish tradition that the name Yahuah was not be spoken for fear that the name
be blasphemed. However, the scriptures
declare that His name should be exalted (e.g. Ps 68:4) and the third
commandment forbids this practice. The
Preface of some bibles will admit why they change His name. Nearly all will
cite tradition and familiarity as the reason. This, I believe is wrong.
Sometimes people pronounce the tetragrammaton as "Jehovah". But Jehovah
could never be the right pronunciation. On this web site, the name of Yahuah
is used in reference to the Heavenly Father because in the scriptures we are
told to praise, exalt, bless, love, teach, preach, anoint, assemble, believe,
give thanks, honor and call on His name.
The Name Yahuah was originally in the
Bible. It was removed by Jewish scribes as time went on because of the
superstition that The Name was too sacred to either speak or even see (even
though YHWH commanded that His Name would be a testament to all generations
and His sons would be called by that name and we are to Worship that name
only and Praise that name and even WRITE that name on our skin!). They
replaced YHWH with a less sacred title Lord. Then translators took more
liberty using El, Elohim, God... all titles not names. The term elohim is
plural for the family of YHWH. YHWH said "you are all elohim, sons of the
Most High". But when you replace YHWH with Elohim you get into big
For instance in Genesis where it once
originally said "Yahwew said I will make man in My image" the Jewish scribes
replace the name with "The Lord said I will make man in My Image" then the
Catholic Church translated that into Greek to read "Elohim said let Elohim
make mand in the image of Elohim" then the English translators translated
that into English to read "Let Us make man in Our image" next thing you know
presto chango.... the Trinity was born. Sad huh? But 100% the way it went
Below is the proof. Turns out that
experts and scholars have known this for years as ancient original documents
were discovered. Read what they have to say about it....
are not familiar with the Name Yahusha, and instead use the name Jesus. However,
scholars openly admit that the name Jesus replaced the original Name Yahusha
in the Scriptures.
Encyclopedia, Vol. 7, page 970, shows these facts:
Name): In English, the name Jesus is a transliteration of the Latin
form, Iesus, which represents the Greek form Iesous, of the Hebrew
name Yesua (Yahusha). The latter is a late form, by vowel
dissimilation, of the Name Yosua (Yahusha).
Masorites, Hebrew scribes during the Middle Ages, who added the vowel points
to the accepted Hebrew text, did not remove Yahuah's Name from the scriptures.
They did, however, point the four letter Name of Yahuah with the vowel marks of
the titles Elohim or Adonai. However, when the scriptures were translated into
Aramaic, Greek, Latin, and later on, English, Lord was substituted for the
Bible Dictionary, on page 665, says:
Lord (Hebrew, Adon), an early word denoting
ownership; hence, absolute control. It is not properly a divine title.
The Jews, out of a superstitious reverence for the Name Yahuah,
always, in reading, pronounce Adonai (lord) whereYahuah is written.
Bible Dictionary, 1872 Edition, states the following:
The substitution of the word Lord is most
(sad); for, while it in no way represents the meaning of the Sacred Name,
the mind has constantly to guard against a confusion with its lower
uses, and, above all, the direct
personal hearing of the Name on the revelation of
Yahuah...is injuriously out of sight.
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The Name Above All Names
When Yahuah gave His 613 Laws to Mosheh to
teach to the Children of Israyl, He vowed an oath saying that those who would
truly obey His voice and walk in all his ways would be a "special treasure"' to
Him. He also promised that He would establish these Law-abiding people as his
5 Now therefore,
if you will truly obey My voice, by
keeping My covenant, then you shall be a special treasure to Me above all
people; for all the earth
6 And you shall be
to Me a kingdom of priests, and a holy
9 Yahuah will
establish you as His Holy People
unto Himself, as He promised you
on oath, if you will keep the Laws of Yahuah your Father, and walk in all
Then all the people on the earth will see
that you are called by the Name of Yahuah,
and they will fear you.
I Kepha 2:9—
a chosen generation, a royal
priesthood, a holy nation, a peculiar people; that you would show forth the
praises of Him Who has called you out of darkness into His marvelous light.
These Scriptures show that all the people of
the earth will see that Yahuah's holy people (those who walk in all of Yahuah's
Ways) are known by the name of Yahuah. There has never been an inspired
Scripture written in the Torah or by the prophets telling us that Yahuah's holy
people would ever be called (known) by any other name. In fact, the Prophet
Yahyl was inspired to write a wonderful prophecy concerning everyone who calls
with the name of Yahuah.
whoever will call with the Name of Yahuah
will be delivered; for in Mount
Zion in Yerusalem there will be deliverance, as Yahuah has said, among the
remnant who has escaped of those
whom Yahuah calls.
And it will come to pass that whoever calls on the Name of Yahuah will be
For Whoever calls with the Name of Yahuah will be
is it that we do not call with the Name Yahuah? Do we not desire
blessings? Do we not desire acceptance from our Father? Holiness? Salvation?
Could it be that we've accepted traditions that our teachers have inherited from
their teachers, and then taught to us as doctrine—doctrine that cannot
be supported by the inspired Scriptures?
Name Above All Names:
The Name Our Teachers Have Taught Us To Forget
We are not called by the Name of Yahuah, in
fact Yahuah's Name is not even uttered, because we have been taught that it is
not acceptable to do so. We are taught that we must not pronounce the Holy Name
of our Creator and Father, Yahuah, the Name the chosen of Yahuah will be known
by, the Name those who are delivered will call upon! We are instructed by our
teachers that Yahuah's Name is too holy to pronounce; therefore, we are to call
Him "Adonai" and "Elohim".
This teaching has been fully ingrained in the
minds of nearly all Israylites to the point that extreme hatred is shown toward
anyone who openly speaks or writes the one and only true Name of the Creator.
Remember this, because the holy prophets both spoke and wrote the true Name. As
a result, the Name of Yahuah has almost been forgotten (in effect, profaned or
brought to nothing), and Baal's name is remembered and proclaimed worldwide.
A Name Remembered In Times Past But
As we will read from authoritative sources, there was
a time when the Name Yahuah was pronounced by all of Yahuah's people, in
prayers, in blessings, and in greetings. However, by the third century B.C.E.,
our teachers began teaching that Yahuah, the true Name of our Creator, was too
holy to pronounce. This teaching is a practice that was not inspired by our
Father, but one that gradually came about due to pagan influence.
At first, the practice was to just pronounce
the name Adonai instead of the Name Yahuah, wherever Yahuah's Name was written
in the Holy Scriptures. However, as time went on, changes were made to the
original writings. Vowel points (which were not originally part of the text)
were added to Yahuah's Name, causing the reader to pronounce the names Adonai
and Elohim instead, and in many places these alternate names were actually
written in place of Yahuah's Name altogether. We'll show you the many sources
verifying these facts, but The Encyclopedia Judaica,
Volume 7, pages 680-682, sums it all up rather well, as you can see for
personal name of the God of Israel is written in the Hebrew Bible with the
four consonants yhwh and is referred to as the "Tetragrammaton". At least
until the destructions of the First Temple in 586 b.c.e., this name was
regularly pronounced with its proper vowels, as is clear from the *Lachish
Letters, written shortly before that date. But at least by the third
century b.c.e., the pronunciation of the name yhwh was avoided, and Adonai,
"the Lord", was substituted for it, as evidenced by the use of the Greek
word Kyrios, "Lord", for yhwh in the Septuagint, the translation
of the Hebrew Scriptures that was begun by Greek-speaking Jews in that
century. Where the combined form *Adonai yhwh occurs in the Bible, this
was read as *Adonai *Elohim, "Lord God". In the early Middle Ages, when
the consonantal text of the Bible was supplied with vowels points to
faciliate its correct traditional reading, the vowel points for 'Adonai with
one variation - a sheva with the first yod of YHWH instead of
the hataf-patah under the aleph of 'Adonai7 were used
for YHWH, thus producing the form Yehowah. When Christian scholars of Europe
first began to study Hebrew, they did not understand what this really meant,
and they introduced the hybrid name "Jehovah". In order to avoid
pronouncing even the sacred name *Adonai for YHWH, the custom was later
introduced of saying simply in Hebrew ha-Shem (or Aramaic Shemc,
"the Name") even in such an expression as "Blessed be he that cometh in the
name of YHWH" (Ps. 118:26).
PROHIBITION OF USE OF THE NAMES OF GOD.
The prohibition applies both to the
pronunciation of the name of God and its committal to writing,
apart from its use in sacred writings.
The prohibition against the pronunciation of
the name of God applies only to the Tetragrammaton,
which could be pronounced by the high priest only once a year on the Day of
Atonement in the Holy of Holies (cf. Mishnah Yoma 6:2), and in the Temple by
the priests when they recited the Priestly Blessings (Sot. 7:6; see also Ch.
Albeck (ed.), Seder Nashim
(1954), 387). As the Talmud expresses
it: "Not as I am written am I pronounced. I am written yod he vav he,
and I am pronounced alef dalet" (nun yod, i.e., Adonai;
The Prohibition Of Yahuah's Name
Authoritative scholars, such as the one shown above,
point out that the original, personal name of our Creator, written
hwhy in the Hebrew
tongue spoken by all the patriarchs and prophets, is correctly written and
pronounced Yahuah in English.
In ancient times, the Hebrew words were
written without vowels in what is called the unpointed script, so that each word
consisted of a group of consonants whose vowel sounds were supplied from memory
by the reader. In other words, Hebrew words were pronounced with vowel sounds
even though the vowels themselves were not written. The Hebrews knew, from oral
teaching and practice, which vowels were associated with the different words.
Yahuah's Name is written yod-heh-waw-heh
hwhy in Hebrew,
transliterated YHWH in English, but is written and pronounced with the proper
vowels Yahuah as these sources show. Notice what
The Jewish Encyclopedia of 1901,
Volume 12, page 119, states.
becomes possible to
determine with a fair degree of certainty the historical pronunciation of
the Tetragrammaton, the results
agreeing with the statement of Ex. iii. 14, in which
hyha. "I will be", a phrase which
is immediately proceeded by the fuller term "I
will be that I will be," or, as in
the English versions, "I am" and "I
am that I am." The name
hwhy is accordingly derived from
and is regarded as an imperfect. This
passage is decisive for the pronunciation "Yahuah"; for the etymology was
undoubtedly based on the known word.
Encyclopedia Judaica, Volume 7, page 680, further states this fact.
The true pronunciation of the name YHWH was
never lost. Several early Greek
writers of the Christian Church testify that
the name was pronounced "Yahuah".
This is confirmed, at least for the vowel of the first syllable of the name,
by the shorter form Yah, which is sometimes used in poetry (e.g., Ex. 15:2)
and the -yahu
that serves as the final syllable in very many Hebrew names.
The Encyclopedia Britanica, Volume
23, page 867, confirms this fact.
the proper name
of the God of Israel; it is composed of
four consonants (YHWH) in Hebrew
and is therefore called the
The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia,
Volume 9, page 160, confirms this fact.
Of the names of God in the Old Testament,
that which occurs most frequently (6,823 times) is the so-called
the distinctive personal name
of the God of Israel.
And The Jewish Encyclopedia Volume
12, pages 118-119, confirms this fact also.
The quadriliteral name of God, (hwhy).
The Tetragrammaton is the ancient
Israelitish name for God...
The Jewish Encyclopedia, Volume 9,
pages 162-163, also shows us that while the rabbis recognized only one proper
name for the Creator, they also considered other names as titles for the
Creator. As you read this excerpt, notice and remember the title (Adonai) that
was used in place of the Creator's Name:
...The Rabbis as well as the cabalists steadfastly maintained their belief in
monotheism. Hence they recognized only
one proper name for the Deity, considering the other names as appellations or
titles signifying divinity, perfection,
and power, or as characterizing His acts as observed and appreciated by
mankind...The name YHWH is considered as
the Name proper; it was known in the
earliest rabbinical works simply as the Name; also as Shem ha-Meyuhad ("the
Extraordinary Name"; Sifre, Num. 143): as Shem ha-Meforash ("the Distinguished
Name"; Yoma vi. 2); as Shem ben The Name. Arba' Otiyyot ("the
Tetra-grammaton" or "the Quadrilateral
Name"; Kid 71a); and as Yod He Waw He
(spelling letters of YHWH).
It is recorded that the pronunciation of the
Name Yahuah began to be suppressed in earnest upon the death of a man named
Simeon the Just, a High Priest who served in this office in the time span of
310-199 B.C.E., or about 200 years before the nation of Israyl came under the
rulership of the Roman Empire. The Jewish
Encyclopedia of 1901, Volume 11, page
353, points out that this was the turning point, namely the exact time when it
became a practice in Israyl to no longer pronounce the Name Yahuah.
/wumv): High priest. He is
identical either with Simeon I. (310-291
or 300-271 b.c.), son of Onias I.,
and grandson of Jaddua, or with Simeon II. (219-199 b.c.), son of Onias
II... After Simeon's death men ceased
to utter the tetragrammaton aloud (Yoma
30b; Tosef Sotah. xiii.).
The Babylonian Talmud, Tractate
Yoma, page 39b, also verifies that it was upon the death of Simeon the
Righteous, that all Israyl began to no longer pronounce the Name Yahuah.
Simeon the Righteous died, with
many indications that such glory was no more enjoyed,
his brethren no more dared utter the
Encyclopedia Volume 9, pages 162-163,
not only confirms this fact, but it shows the strict prohibition and warning to
all those who do not adhere to it.
restriction upon communicating the Name
proper probably originated
in Oriental etiquette; in the East even a teacher was not called by name. For
naming his master Elisha, Gehazi was punished with leprosy (II Kings viii. 5;
Sanh. 100a). After the
death of the high priest Simeon the Righteous, forty years prior to the
destruction of the Temple, the priests ceased to pronounce the Name (Yoma 39b).
From that time the pronunciation of the Name was prohibited. "Whoever pronounces
the Name forfeits his portion in the future world" (Sanh. xi. 1).
Hananiah ben Teradion was
punished for teaching his
disciples the pronunciation of the Name
(`Ab. Zarah 17b).
The Babylonian Talmud, Tractate
Kiddushin, page 71a, openly admits, however, that the Name yahweh was pronounced
by all the children of Israyl, both small and great, before the death of Simeon
At first [Yahuah's]
Name used to be entrusted to all
people. When unruly men increased, it was confided to the pious of the
Only The High Priest Spoke The Name Of Yahuah
Many teachers in Israyl came to believe that
the Name Yahuah was too holy to be pronounced, so they began teaching the nation
that only the High Priest should utter this Name, once a year on the Day of
Atonement. The Century Bible, by
Adeney and Bennett, Volume 1, pages 90-91, shows us this information.
after the return from the Captivity, and before the beginning of the
Christian era, the Jews came to believe that the Name YHWH was too sacred to
be uttered on ordinary occasions. It
was said to be pronounced by the High Priest on the Day of Atonement.
Please note the time period in which the Name
of our Heavenly Father was suppressed, some time after the return from the
captivity, and before the beginning of the Christian Era (approximately 310-199
B.C.E.). This means that up to this time, the prophets, and in fact all the
people of Israyl, used the great Name of Yahuah when they walked through the
waters of the Red Sea; when they ate manna which came directly from Yahuah; when
they saw their enemies expelled from in front of them; when they took the lands
from their enemies; and all the while, they were becoming a healthy nation. It
was only in turning from Yahuah to idolatry, as we are doing today, that caused
Yahuah to hide His face from Israyl and give their enemies advantage over them.
Encyclopedia contains additional information about the pronunciation of
Yahuah's Name being confined to the temple and spoken only by the priests.
Volume 9, pages 162-163, states:
The pronunciation of the
written Name was used only by the priests
(Num. vi. 22-27); outside the Temple
they used the title "Adonai"
(Sotah vii. 6; p. 38a)...
Volume 1, pages 201-202, shows us this:
the early period of the Second Temple the Name was still in common use,
as may be learned from such proper names as Jehohanan, or from liturgical
formulas, such as Halelu-Yah.
At the beginning of the
Hellenistic era, however, the use of the Name was reserved for the Temple.
From Sifre to Num. vi. 27, Mishnah Tamid, vii. 2, and Sotah, vii. 6 it appears
that the priests were
allowed to pronounce the Name at the benediction only in the Temple; elsewhere
they were obligated to use the appellative name (kinnuy) "Adonai"'
of the Name by the Temple priests... also gradually fell into disuse.
Tosef., Sotah, xiii. 8 quoted Menahot, 109b, and Yoma 39b, relates that "from
the time Simon the Just died
[this is the traditional expression for the beginning of the Hellenistic
period], the priests
refrained from blessing the people with the Name"__in
other words, they pronounced it indistinctly, or they mouthed or mumbled it.
Thus says Tosef., Ber. vi. 23:
Formerly they used to greet
each other with the Ineffable Name; when the time of the decline of the study of
the Law came, the elders mumbled the Name. Subsequently also the solemn
utterance of the Name by the high priest on the Day of Atonement, that ought to
have been heard by the priests and the people
according to the Mishnah Yoma, vi. 2,
became inaudible or
R. Tarfon (or Tryphon)
relates (Yer. Yoma, iii. 40d): "I was standing in the row of young priests, and
I heard the high
priest mumbling the Name, while the rest of the priests were chanting."
even among these the right
pronunciation was forgotten in the course of time, and the hope was expressed
by Phinehas b. Jair, "the Saint",
that the knowledge and the
correct use of the Name, so wondrously efficacious in the blessed days long
goneby, would again be restored in the Messianic age
(see Pes. 50a, Midr. Teh. to Ps. xxxvi. and to Ps. xci.)...
Volume 11, page 263, shows us
Mishnah (Sotah vii. 6; Tamid vii. 2) says, in conformity with this
the Sanctuary the name of God [in the three blessings, Num. vi. 24-26] is to be
pronounced in the Priestly Benediction as it is written
but outside the Sanctuary it
must be given the paraphrastic pronunciation
The high priest spoke
the name of God on the Day of Atonement
in his recitation of Lev. xvi. 30 during the confessions of sins; and when the
priests and the people in the great hall heard him utter the "Shem ha-Meforash",
they prostrated themselves and glorified God, saying: "Praised by the glorious
name of His kingdom for ever and ever" (Yoma vi. 2). When a very young priest,
the well-known tanna Tarfon witnessed this ceremony; and he declares that
the high priest uttered the
holy name of God so that his voice was merged in the song of priests
(Yer. Yoma 40d, below; Kid. 71a; Eccl. R. iii. 11),
although it was believed that
when, at this point in the ritual, the priest pronounced the name of God he was
heard as far as Jericho
(Tamid iii. 7; comp. Yoma 39b). Tarfon's account, that the voice of the high
priest was drowned by the song of other priests, also confirms the synchronous
statement (Yer. Yoma 40b)
that in former times the high
priest uttered the Name with a loud voice, but that subsequently, when
immorality had become more and more prevalent, he lowered his voice lest the
Name should be heard by those unworthy to hear it...
The Shem ha-Meforash as an object of the
esoteric knowledge of scholars appears in the statement of Johanan (Kid. 71a): "Once
each week the sages give their pupils the Four-Lettered Name." A tannaitic
passage in Yer. Yoma 40d, however, says: ``In former times the Name was taught
to all; but when immorality increased it was reserved for the pious,"
although this statement refers, according to the baraita in Kid. 71a, to
teaching the Name to the priests.
Immorality came among the people because Yahuah and His Laws were not being
taught or practiced. So without authority from the inspired words of the
prophets, our forefathers removed the name of Yahuah from the memory of our
people. Instead of teaching Yahuah's Laws, they turned to the traditions of the
Gods of earth and heaven!
Volume 9, page 163, further states:
appears that a majority of the priests in the last days of the Temple were
unworthy to pronounce the Name, and a combination of the letters or of the
equivalents of the letters constituting the Name was employed by the priests in
the Temple. Thus the Twelve-Lettered Name was substituted, which, a baraita
says, was at first taught to every priest; but with the increase of the number
of licentious priests
the Name was revealed only to the pious ones, who "swallowed" its pronunciation
while the other priests were chanting.
Another combination, the Forty-two-Lettered Name, Rab says, was taught only to
whomever was known to be of good character and disposition, temperate, and in
the prime of life (Kid. 71a; comp. Rashi to `Ab. Zarah 17b). Maimonides, in his
``Moreh,'' thinks that these names were perhaps composed of several other divine
The Incommunicable Name was pronounced "Adonai", and where Adonai and yhwh occur
together the later was pronounced "Elohim".
Volume 12, page 119, states:
avoidance of the
original name of God
both in speech and, to
a certain extent, in the Bible was due
according to Geiger ("Urschrift," p. 262),
to a reverence which shrank
from the utterance of the Sublime Name;
and it may well be that
such a reluctance first arose
in a foreign, and hence in an "unclean" land, very possibly, therefore, in
to Dalman (l.c.
pp. 66 et seq.),
the Rabbis forbade the
utterance of the Tetragrammaton, to guard against desecration of the Sacred Name;
but such an ordinance could not have been effectual unless it had met with
We have seen, from these well-known and accepted sources, the
a. Yahuah is the ancient, original, distinctive, personal, proper
name of the Creator;
b. The rabbis recognized yahweh as the proper Name for the Creator;
c. The rabbis considered names other than the true Name as names for the
d. The pronunciation of Yahuah's Name began to be suppressed in the third
e. The Name of Yahuah was considered to be too holy to pronounce;
f. The pronunciation of the written Name was used only by the priests; and that,
g. Those who were not priests, and priests when outside the temple, used the
titles Adonai and Elohim when referring to the Creator.
The fact still remains that although the
pronunciation of Yahuah's Name was
from being spoken (beginning
around the third century b.c.e.), Yahuah has
not allowed the true pronunciation of
His Name to be lost. And, the scholars do admit this fact. Notice what
The Jewish Encyclopedia of 1901, Volume 12,
page 119, states:
becomes possible to
determine with a fair degree of certainty the historical pronunciation of the
results agreeing with the statement of Ex. iii. 14, in which
hyha. "I will be",
a phrase which is immediately preceeded by the fuller term "I will be that I
will be,'' or, as in the English versions, "I am'' and "I am that I am.'' The
hwhy is accordingly
derived from the root
and is regarded as an imperfect.
This passage is decisive for
the pronunciation "Yahuah";
for the etymology was undoubtedly based on the known word.
The Encyclopedia Judaica, Volume 7, page 680, further states this
pronunciation of the name yhwh was never lost.
Several early Greek writers of the Christian Church testify that
the name was pronounced "Yahuah."
This is confirmed, at least for the vowel of the first syllable of the name, by
the shorter form Yah, which is sometimes used in poetry (e.g., Ex. 15:2) and the
that serves as the final syllable in very many Hebrew names.
Yahuah's Name In The Dead Sea Scrolls
The following is is a photo of Psalms 119:59-64 in the Dead Sea Scrolls
which are a collection of Hebrew Scriptures that date back 2000 years. Note
Yahuah's name in the ancient Hebrew
script while the rest of the text is in a more modern Hebrew that was
used at the time.
The Name Of The Creator Unearthed
One of the first archeological finds
was discovered during excavations in Arad,Israel that took place during the
1960s and 1970s. Fragments of pottery were found at an Israelite sanctuary which
dated back to the days of King Solomon. Inscribed in Hebrew on one of these is a
reference to "the House of Yahuah."
This was reported in The Jerusalem Post in an article entitled "Unearthing the
Land" which appeared June 29,1973. Here is an excerpt from that article and a
fragment of the pottery.
Mostly used for business
transactions, these humble documents are a mine of historic information. At Arad,
excavated by Yohanan Aharoni, reference is made to a "House
amazing find was the very oldest Scriptural text ever found, dating back almost
2,600 years. This is found in a tiny silver
amulet which contains a Seventh Century B.C. extract from the Book of Numbers
(6:24-26), the Priestly Blessing. The rolled up amulet was part of a
tresure hoard found by a Tel Aviv University archeologist in a First Temple
Period family tomb in Jerusalem, Israel. When this amulet was written, the
Temple of Solomon still stood, the heirs of King David still ruled on the
throne, and the Dead Sea Scrolls would not be written for another four hundread
It was three years after its discovery
before the fragile amulet could be unrolled by technical experts at the Israeli
Museum. On this amulet the Name of Yahuah
could be clearly read in the original Hebrew language. Complete details
of this maginificent find can be read in the June 28, 1986 and the August 9,
1986 issues of The Jerusalem Post, and
the June, 1987 issue of The Readers Digest.
The Name of Yahuah Engraved
on an Ivory Pomegranate Decoration
Archaeology Review, Jan.-Feb. 1990, page 49—"BAR
recently published a beautiful carved ivory pome-granate with an important
inscription on it. As partially reconstructed, the engraved inscription around
the neck of the pomegranate reads as follows: "Belonging
to the House of Yahuah Holy to the Priests."
Based on this reading, many scholars have concluded that the ivory pomegranate
originally came from the Jerusalem Temple constructed by King Solomon."
Three-shekel receipt provides evidence of
King Solomon's Temple
YORK (AP) — Talk about holding on to a receipt. A recently discovered
piece of pottery recording a donation to the
"House of Yahuah may contain the
oldest mention outside the Bible
of King Solomon's Temple.
The 3½-by-4-inch artifact is
nearly 3,000 years old, dating to a time when kings sent messages inscribed on
Process Of Elimination
Developed And Implemented
In order to implement the avoidance of
pronouncing Yahuah's Name, a system of vowel points was developed and added to
the Hebrew language.
Encyclopedia, Volume 12, pages 118-119, tells us more about this:
quadrilateral name of God, (hwhy).
The Tetragrammaton is
the ancient Israelitish name for God. According to actual count, it occurs 5,410
times in the Bible,
being divided among the books as follows: Genesis 153 times, Exodus 364,
Leviticus 285, Numbers 387, Deuteronomy 230, (total in Torah 1,419); Joshua 170,
Judges 158, Samuel 423, Kings 467, Isaiah 367, Jeremiah 555, Ezekiel 211, Minor
Prophets 345 (total in Prophets 2,696); Psalms 645, Proverbs 87, Job 31, Ruth
16, Lamentations 32, Daniel 7, Ezra__Nehemiah
31, Chronicles 446 (total in Hagiographa 1,295).
In connections with
Tetragrammaton is pointed with the vowels of "Elohim"
(which beyond doubt was not pronounced in this combination);
it occurs 310 times after (ynda),
and five times before it
(Dalman, "Der Gottesname," etc., p.91), 227 of these occurrences being in
Ezekiel alone. The
designation "YHWH Zeba'ot," translated "Lord of hosts," occurs 260 times, and
with the addition of "God" four times more.
This designation is met with as follows: Isaiah 65 times, Jeremiah 77 times,
Minor Prophets 103 (Zechariah 52; Malachi 24), Samuel 11, Kings 4; but it does
not occur, on the other hand, in the Pentateuch, in Joshua, in Judges, or in the
these 264 occurrences and the 315 just noted to the 5,410 instances of the
simple Tetragrammaton, the word "YHWH" is found to occur 5,989 times in the
Bible. There is no instance of it, however, in Canticles, Ecclesiastes, or
Esther; and in Daniel it occurs 7 times
(in ch. ix.)__a
fact which in itself shows the late date of these books,
whose authors lived at a
period when the use of the Tetragrammaton was already avoided, its utterance
having become restricted both in the reading of the Bible and still more in
colloquial speech. For it was substituted adonai; and the fact that this name is
found 315 times in combination with "YHWH" and 134 times alone shows that the
custom of reading the Tetragrammaton as if written "adonai" began at a time when
the text of the Biblical books was not yet scrupulously protected from minor
assumption explains most of the occurrences of "Adonai" before "YHWH";
the former word indicated the pronunciation of the latter. At the time of the
Chronicler this pronunciation was so generally accepted that he never wrote the
name "Adonai." About
300 b.c., therefore, the word ``yhwh'' was not pronounced in its original form.
For several reasons Jacob ("Im Namen Gottes," p. 167) assigns the "disuse of the
word "YHWH" and the substitution of "adonai" to the later decades of the
The Interpreters Dictionary of the Bible,
Supplementary Volume, page 717, tells us more about the devices used to hide
The earliest instance
where a word in the biblical text was not read, but another was pronounced in
its stead, is that of the TETRAGRAMMATON (YHWH). The prohibition of pronouncing
"The Name," and the obligation of substituting in perpetuity a term that
expresses the divine majesty, are explicitly recognized in the Babylonian Talmud
(Pes. 50a): "Said the Holy One, blessed be He: not as I am written, am I read. I
i.e., the Tetragrammaton), but I am read
i.e., Adonai)." The antiquity of this prohibition is evident from the fact that
the Hebrew Tetragrammaton was not translated in the most ancient recensions of
the lxx, where it appears only in Hebrew script. Later it was rendered into
which conveys the sense of the Hebrew Adonai. In the Greek text, at the
beginning, the same procedure was followed as in the Hebrew, namely, the
equivalent of the divine name was first abbreviated, through reverence, into the
k", then, in later
texts and under Christian influence, it came to be written out fully. In the
same way, the Babylonian Targ. on the Pentateuch (Targ. Onkelos) systematically
renders the Tetra-grammaton into Aramaic by the abbreviation
equivalent of which
is the same as that of the Tetragrammaton fully written in its Hebrew form).
prohibition of pronouncing the divine name persisted orally until the
introduction of the Hebrew vocalic system, where the vowels written under the
Tetragrammaton are those of the substitute word Adonai.
Its antiquity clearly shows that it
originated in the oldest
Jewish oral traditions that accompanied the transmission (masora) of the
sacred text from the beginning.
In contrast to the
substituted orally for the Tetragrammaton,
the Masoretic tradition, as a
precautionary measure, indicated in the margin of later mss, in the form of a
statistical note (dlq=134),
the number of times in
the text where God is explicitly designated by the title
(cf. Gen. 18:3 and passim).
In this way, they sought to
forestall any change
in the form of the sacred text that might be made by an overhasty scribe.
Robert Pfeiffer, in his
Introduction to the Old Testament,
supplies more information:
To avoid the
utterance of the name Yahuah, both before and after the adoption of the qere,
other devices were employed.
In some cases
adonay was written in the text (so in
Dan. 9:9 where the Babylonians wrote YHWH); in Pss. 42-83
substituted for Yahuah;
in Am. 5:16 adonay
(missing in the lxx) and in Ps. 59:5 (H. 59:6); 80:4, 19 (H. 80:5, 20); 84:8 (H.
substitutes for yhwh, which were mechanically copied into the text
(see W.R. Arnold,
Ephod and Ark, pp. 31,
38, 145-147). We even
find in the text late substitutes for Yahuah:
"Heaven" (Dan. 4:26 [H. 4:23]; cf. Is. 14:13, lxx; the Kingdom of "Heaven" in
Matthew) and "the Name" (Lev. 24:11, 16). In the Aramaic portions of Daniel 2-7,
not only are
substitutes for Yahuah regularly employed,
but the verbal form
YeHeWeH (he is or will
be), which occurs regularly in the Elephantine papyri, to avoid confusion with
the ineffable name
YHWH was changed to
(similarly the plurals
Long after the introduction of the
"Lord" for YHWH (6,823 times
in the Old Testament according to the Masora), but before a.d. 500, vulgar
expressions in the text, as we have seen, were removed by substituting a
euphemism in the reading (qere). Equally ancient are the instances of "read
but not written" and "written but not read"
Vowel points were placed among the letters of Yahuah's Name (hwhy)
as a code telling the reader to pronounce
another name (or title)
in place of the Name Yahuah (hwhy).
The Century Bible, by Adeney and Bennett, Volume 1, page 91,
chronicles the establishment of this doctrine.
was originally written without vowels, but
when the vowel points were
added, the vowels of Adonay or Elohim were written with yhwh, as a
direction that these words were to be read instead of the word whose consonants
were YHWH. Thus we
find the combinations YeHoWaH and YeHoWiH.
We have already seen that the two names chosen to take the place of the
Name Yahuah are Adonai and Elohim. When the vowel points of Adonai or Elohim
were placed among the letters of the Name Yahuah (hwhy),
Yahuah's Name was changed to look like the following: (ho*hy++)
or (ho!hy++). Then,
when a reader saw the Name Yahuah with the vowel points, the reader would know
to say Adonai when he saw the form (ho*hy+),
and Elohim when he saw the form (ho!hy++).
The Babylonian Talmud, Tractate
Kiddushin, page 71a, openly confirms that this became the standard practice of
all Israyl, as it still is to this day.
Abina opposed [two verses]: It is written, `this is my name'; but
it is also written, `and this is my memorial'?__The
Holy One, blessed be He, said: I am not called as I am written: I am
written with yod he, but I am read, alef daleth.7
Tetragrammaton is yod he waw he; but it is read adonai =
alef daleth nun yod...
Our Father's Name: Lost Through Translations
To Other Languages
We have plainly seen that due to the devices
of our teachers and leaders, the rabbis, the Name of Yahuah fell into disuse.
What started out in speech, also was transferred into writing. The Name of
Yahuah was replaced with the name Adonai so that down through the years,
especially in the translation from Hebrew to other languages, The Holy
Scriptures do not contain the Name of yahweh at all, but rather the title Lord.
Britanica, Volume 23, page 867, confirms the fact that the proper, original
Name Yahuah was replaced with common substitutes:
proper name of the God of
Israel; it is composed of four consonants (YHWH) in Hebrew and is therefore
called the tetragrammaton...The
name Yahuah later ceased to be used by the Jews for two somewhat contradictory
reasons. As Judaism
began to become a universal religion,
the proper name Yahuah tended
to be replaced by the common noun Elohim, meaning "God," which could apply to
foreign deities and
therefore could be used to demonstrate the universal sovereignty of Israel's God
over all others. At the same time,
the divine name was
increasingly regarded as too sacred to be uttered, for fear of profanation, and
in the synagogue ritual it was replaced by Adonai
("my Lord"), which was translated Kyrios ("Lord")
in the Septuagint. The
occurence of the four sacred letters in the text of the Bible itself could not
be thus replaced, but
the same fear of profanation caused
Masoretes (6th-8th centuries
a.d.) to change the pronunciation by replacing the vowels
(which in Hebrew are marked beneath or above the consonants if not omitted
altogether) with the
vowels of Adonai (or,
more rarely, the vowels of
The Jewish Encyclopedia, Volume 1, pages 201, 203, also points out this
literally "my Lord," the plural form of Adon, that is, "Lord" or "Lordship"):
This word occurs in
the Masoretic text 315 times by the side of the Tetragram YHWH (310 times
preceding and five times succeeding it) and 134 times without it. Originally an
appellation of God, the word became a definite title, and when the Tetragram
became too holy for utterance Adonai was substituted for it, so that, as a rule,
the name written yhwh receives the points of Adonai and is read Adonai, except
in cases where Adonai precedes or succeeds it in the text, when it is read
Elohim. The vowel-signs e, o, a, given to the
Tetragrammaton in the written text, therefore, indicate this pronunciation.
Adonai, while the form Jehovah, introduced by a Christian writer about 1520,
rests on a misunderstanding.
The translation of yhwh by
the word Lord in the King James and in other versions is due to the traditional
reading of the Tetragrammaton as Adonai, and this can be traced to the oldest
translation of the Bible, the Septuagint...
...No wonder, then,
that the Greek translators of the Bible,
even though some scribe might now and then write the Tetragrammaton in the
archaic Hebrew form on the margin,
II I II I,
as found by Origen (see facsimile attached to article AQUILA),
took great care to render the
name II I II I regularly Kupios, Lord, as if they knew of no other
reading but Adonai. Translations dependant upon the Septuagint have the same
reading of the Name.
You have just read proof after proof that the words Adonai and Elohim have come
to be substituted for the Name Yahuah, whether in speech or in writing,
throughout The Holy Scriptures so that Yahuah's Name is forgotten. However, the
simple fact remains, in the very earliest writings, known as the J or Yahwist
manuscripts, the Name of Yahuah is used exclusively. So then, how did these
words come to be accepted as suitable substitutes for the Name Yahuah?
The Four Main Manuscripts
The general consensus among scholars is that
there are four main sources or manuscripts of The Holy Scriptures named J, E, P,
and D. The Encyclopedia Judaica, Volume 13,
page 234, gives us this fact.
The opinion accepted in contemporary biblical research is that
the pentateuchal literature is composed of four
major sources: J, E, P, and
This information concerning the major sources of the Scriptures is also
shown to us in The Encyclopedia Brittanica,
Volume 2, page 194:
any of the original documents
that, in compilation, constitute the Bible.
Most of the writings in the Old Testament are of anonymous authorship, and in
many cases it is not known whether they were compiled by individuals or by
groups. Nevertheless, by careful evaluation of internal evidence and with the
aid of various schools of biblical criticism (q.v.),
scholars have been
able to identify certain sources and to arrange them chronologically in order of
The means by which
the basic sources of the Pentateuch (first five books of the Bible) were
their chronology established provided the first clear picture of Israel's
literary and religious development. The names by which these sources are now
known, in chronological order, are:
the Yahwist, or J, source,
so called because it
employed as the Lord's
name a Hebrew word
transliterated into English as YHWH
(called J from the German: JHVH)
and spoken as Yahuah;
the Elohist, or E,
source, distinguished by its reference
to the Lord as Elohim;
or D, source, marked by distinctive vocabulary and style; and the
code, or P, source, which contains detailed ritual instructions.
Our main concern will focus on the J
and E sources. It is very important to
note that the oldest source, the J
Yes, in the oldest manuscript of
the Scriptures, Yahuah is never
referred to by the titles El, Elohim, or Adonai—but only by His Name, Yahuah!
(Yahwist) source, used the Name of Yahuah
Judaica, Volume 13, page 234, gives us these facts:
distinction between J and E is based primarily on the different usage of the
divine name in these sources: YHWH in J and Elohim ("God")
in E. P is the Priestly Source and D the Deuteronomic. The different usage of
the divine name is not only a matter of form but relates to the type of attitude
taken to the history of the religion of Israel.
According to J, YHWH, the
Lord of Israel, was worshipped as early as the time of Enosh (Gen. 4:26), while
according to E, YHWH, i.e., the true name of the God of Israel, was first
revealed to Moses at the burning bush (Ex. 3:6ff.).
...J notes a religious
continuity beginning with the time of Enosh and continuing through the period of
the Patriarchs to Moses.
In contrast, E and P, while admitting that the God who was revealed to the
Patriarchs is the God who was revealed to Moses, maintain that the Patriarchs
did not know Him by His true name, and there is doubtless theological
significances to this lack of knowledge. Furthermore, P, which places great
emphasis on the religious chasm between the period of the Patriarchs and that of
Moses, does not consider the possibility of legitimate worship of God
(sacrifices) before the revelation in the time of Moses.
J and E Sources.
This difference between J and E is most evident
in Genesis, where it is based on an explicit criterion: YHWH in J as opposed to
The J (Yahwist) Source
The Jewish Encyclopedia, Volume 7,
pages 64-65, tells us also that the J manuscript preferred the Name of Yahuah
symbolized as J): The name given in modern Bible criticism to the supposed
author of those
portions of the Pentateuch (or of the Hexateuch) in which the name yhwh is used
for God in preference
to the name "Elohim,"
which latter is
employed by the Elohistic writers...it
is natural to suppose that
J was written as its
counterpart, and as an expression of the view that yhwh ruled all things from
the beginning, and that the faith and worship cherished in Jerusalem were also
those of the Fathers.
The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, Volume 2,
page 777, tells us this about the oldest source of The Holy Scriptures, the
One of principal
narrative sources or strata of the Pentateuch.
The symbol is derived from the personal name of God, Jehovah (or more accurately
the use of which is
characteristic of this source. It is commonly regarded as Judahite in origin,
and somewhat earlier than E
(tenth-ninth centuries b.c.).
The Anchor Bible, Genesis, Volume 1, pages 37-38,
confirms that the J source is the oldest (and therefore the first and inspired)
source of the Scriptures:
traced back the name Yahuah to the dim past, while
E and P
attributed the usage to Moses, both views
may be justified depending on the point vantage.
The worship of Yahuah was in all likelihood
confined at first to a small body of searchers under the aegis of the
patriarchs; it was this movement that found a worthy recorder in
When Moses set out to fashion a nation out of an amorphous conglomerate of
sundry ethnic and tribal elements, he had to concentrate on three major features
of nationhood: a territorial base, a body of laws, and a distinctive religion.
The last was normative in more ways than one;
it was necessarily the faith of the same
forefathers who had already tied it to the Promised Land, with Yahuah as its
fountainhead. To that extent, therefore,
Yahuah revealed himself to Moses: and it is this personal revelation that both
however, who chronicled the progress within the inner circle of the patriarchal
pioneers, the personal participation of Yahuah had been the dominant fact from
The Encyclopedia Judaica, Volume 7,
pages 680-681, concerning this "J" writer, says:
According to the documentary hypothesis, the
literary sources in the Pentateuch known as the Elohist and the Priestly
Document never use the name Yahuah for God until it is revealed to Moses (Ex.
3:13; 6:2-3); but the Yahwist source uses
it from Genesis 2:4 on, thus implying that it was at least as old as Abraham.
If the name is really so old, then Exodus 6:2-3
must be understood as meaning that from the time
of Moses on, Yahuah was to be the personal name of the God who brought the
people of Israel into existence by bringing them out of Egypt and established
them as a nation by His covenant with them at Sinai.
One must wonder, if Abraham and Mosheh had followed the same teaching we today
have known from birth, the Name of our Heavenly Father would have never been
known to us today. It is my opinion that we should praise Yahuah for giving
Abraham and Mosheh the great wisdom to call upon, and write for us, His Name.
The Interpreters Dictionary of the Bible, Volume 2,
page 409, confirms the fact that the earliest manuscripts used only the Name
Yahwist narrative (see
Pentateuch) traces the worship of Yahuah
far back beyond the period of Moses and affirms that in the time of Enosh, the
grandson of Adam, men first began to invoke the name of Yahuah
(Gen. 4:26). This narrator's consistent
use of the name from the story of Creation onward represents a theological
attempt to view the whole of human history in the light of the covenant faith
and to demonstrate that Yahuah is not just the God of Israel but of all mankind
(Enosh means "man")...
...Although the name was given new currency
in Mosaic circles, the J account (Gen. 4:26) may preserve a dim
recollection that it was known in the pre-Mosaic
the latest Pentateuchal tradition, the priestly
writing (P), gives a completely different
view in Exod. This conjecture is confirmed by a third Pentateuchal tradition,
E, which avoids using Yahuah in the book
the earliest Hebrew the sacred name appeared as a four-letter word or
tetragrammaton: YHWH (hwhy)
without any vowel signs...
Knowing the time in which the blinded scribes began to replace Yahuah's
Name with titles of gods and Lords, and then reading the rebuke given to them by
the Prophet Yeremyah (Chapter 23) for making Yahuah's people forget His great
Name, we see the pieces of an historical puzzle start falling into place. After
rejecting and hiding Yahuah's Name, it's obvious that the next step was to
reject and deny Yahuah's great laws.
The translation of the Holy Scriptures from
Hebrew to Aramaic, the Targums, are known for their literal adherence to the
original Hebrew Scriptures which used the Name Yahuah.
The Chumash with Targum Onkelos and Rashi's
Commentary, shows us that in Genesis 1:1, where Elohim is used in the
Masoretic text, the Targum Onkelos uses the Aramaic abbreviation for Yahuah.
Masoretic Text: The word ELOHIM is circled
Targum Onkelos: The Name Yahuah is circled
The E (Elohist) Source
or Elohist source is derived from the word elohim, god, the use of which is
characteristic of this source. Please remember,
(Yahwist) source is the oldest source, meaning the
Elohist source came after the Yahwist
source. The Interpreters Dictionary of the
Bible, Volume 2, page 1, tells us:
-. One of the principal narrative sources or strata of the Pentateuch. The term
is derived from a Hebrew word for "God" (syhla,
GOD, NAMES of, § 3c),
the use of which is characteristic of
The Jewish Encyclopedia, Volume 5, page 142, confirms
that the E source used Elohim in place of Yahuah's Name.
use of "Elohim" for "God" is the most notable characteristic of E.
...the symbol J
(=Jahvist) applying to passages in which the name "YHWH" is predominant. "Adonai"
and "El" occur occasionally (Gen. xx. 4, xxx. 20, xxxv. 7, xliii. 14).
The Interpreter's Dictionary, Volume 2, page 94, also
shows that this source is commonly associated with the Northern Kingdom of
Israyl, and dates approximately 100 years later than the Yahwist source.
The author or compiler of the E
source of the Pentateuch (see
E), which is commonly associated with the
N kingdom and dated to the eighth century b.c.
The Anchor Bible, Proverbs-Ecclesiastes, Volume 18,
page xxxi, tells us that the Elohist (E) source shows its ORIGIN to be in the
NORTHERN KINGDOM of Israyl, when the kingdom split in two AFTER the death of
The fact that
the E document in the Pentateuch shows evidences
of origin in North Israel after the division of the kingdom at Solomon's death,
but follows the outline of the Judean J
document which it later was used to supplement, indicates that both stem from a
common source before the kingdom split in two.
Do you grasp the significance of
this? This says that both the Yahwist and
the Elohist sources stem from a common
source before the kingdom
split in two. This actually means they used the
same work, however, while
one retained Yahuah's Name in
the Holy Scriptures, the other replaced
Yahuah's Name with the title Elohim.
The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia,
Volume 9, page 160, gives us more proof that Yahuah's Name appeared in the
original writings, and Adonai and Elohim
were added later.
Of the names of God in the Old Testament, that
which occurs most frequently (6,823 times) is the so-called Tetragrammaton, YHWH
the distinctive personal name of the God of Israel.
This name is commonly represented in modern translations by the form "Jehovah,"
which, however, is a philological
(see Jehovah). This form has arisen
through attempting to pronounce the consonants of the name with the vowels of
which the Masorites have inserted in the
text, indicating thereby that Adonai was to be read
(as a "keri perpetuum") instead of YHWH.
When the name Adonai itself precedes, to avoid repetition of this name,
YHWH is written by the Masorites with the vowels
of Elohim, in which case Elohim is read instead of YHWH.
In consequence of this Masoretic reading the authorized and revised English
versions (though not the American edition of the revised version)
render yhwh by the word "Lord" in the great
majority of cases.
This name, according to the narrative in
Ex. iii. (E),
was made known to Moses in a vision at Horeb. In another, parallel narrative
(Ex. vi. 2, 3, P) it is stated that the name was not known to the Patriarchs. It
is used by one of the documentary sources of Genesis (J),
but scarcely if at all by the others. Its use is avoided by some later writers
also. It does not occur in Ecclesiastes,
and in Daniel is found only in ch. ix. The writer of Chronicles shows a
preference for the form Elohim, and in Ps. xliii.-lxxxiii.
Elohim occurs much more frequently than YHWH,
probably having been substitued in some places for the latter name
, as in Ps. liii. (comp. Ps. xiv.).
The Ancient And Honored Name Of Yahuah
text ever found, dating back almost 2,600 years, was found in a tiny
silver amulet which contains a Seventh Century b.c.e. extract from the Book of
Numbers (6:24-26), the priestly blessing. The rolled up amulet was part of a
treasure hard found by a Tel Aviv University archeologist in a First Temple
Period family tomb in Yerusalem, Israyl. When this amulet was written, the
Temple of Solomon still stood, the heirs of King David still ruled on the
throne, and the Dead Sea Scrolls would
not be written for another 400 years.
It was three years after its discovery before
this fragile amulet could be unrolled by technical experts at the Israyli
Museum. On this amulet the Name of Yahuah could be clearly read. Complete
details of this magnificent find can be read in the 6-28-86 and 8-9-86 issues of
The Jerusalem Post and the 6-87 issue of
The Readers Digest.
The following excerpt was taken from an article in the November/December 1997
issue of Biblical Archaeology Review, pages
28-32. We see here that the Creator's work during the time of Solomon was known
by the same Name as it is today—The House of Yahuah. It was Solomon who built
the Temple where this tithe was given. You can read of this in I Kings 6.
Three Shekels For The Lord
Ancient Inscription Records Gift To Solomon's Temple
Two extremely important Hebrew
inscriptions have recently surfaced on the antiquities market. One appears to be
a receipt for a donation of three silver shekels to the House of Yahuah,
pursuant to an order of the Israelite king. This is the oldest extra-Biblical
mention of King Solomon's Temple ever discovered. The other inscription records
the petition of a widow for some portion of her late husband's property. Both
inscriptions, apparently by the same scribe, are written in Old Hebrew, or paleo-Hebrew,
the script used before the Babylonian Exile. Both are on pieces of pottery,
called ostraca because they bear an inscription.
Only one other extra-Biblical source mentions Solomon's Temple, destroyed by
the Babylonians in 586 B.C.E...
The text on the first ostracon, which measures about 4 inches wide by 3.5 inches
tall (10.9 by 8.6 cm), is only 5 lines and 13 words long. All the words are
complete and readable. See the box for the text and translation.
A TEMPLE RECEIPT
1. K'SR SWK. 'SY
3. [Z]KRYHW.KSP TR
4. SS.LBYT YHWH [.]
1. Pursuant to the order to you of Ashya-
2. hu the king to give by the hand
3. of [Z]echaryahu silver of Tar-
4. shish to the House of Yahuah
5. Three shekels.
*Brackets indicate that the letter or word has been reconstructed.
Half-brackets indicate that part of the leter or word has been reconstructed.
Most of the words are separated from
one another by dots acting as word dividers. However, sometimes the word
dividers are omitted, such as between LBYT and YHWH, which together are
pronounced Beit Yahuah and mean "House of Yahuah."
The Temple is designated by the Hebrew
term BYT YHWH, many times in the Bible. (Temple only refers to the
building, Beit—House refers also the people of Yahuah). But BYT YHWH had been
found complete in only one extra-Biblical inscription, a faded ostracon from
Arad with an obscure context, until this newly published ostracon was revealed.
BYT YHWH has been reconstructed
on the inscribed ivory pomegranate that served as the head of a priestly scepter
in Solomon's Temple... divine name would mean "he causes to be, or
exist," i.e., "he creates." Amorite personal names after 2,000 B.C.
lend support to the Haupt-Albright view, demonstrating that the employment of
the causative stem yahwe "he creates" was in vogue in the linguistic
background of early Hebrew.
Dictionary of the Bible, Volume 4 page 923 says:
vocalization of the four consonants of
the Israylite name for the Creator, which
scholars believe to approximate the
The Wycliffe Bible Encyclopedia, page 690 tells us:
The Name par excellence for the Creator of
Israyl is Yahuah,
found 6,823 times in the OT. Through Israyl's deliverance from bondage in Egypt,
adoption as a nation, and guidance to the Promised Land, the Redeemer-Creator is
especially known by THIS NAME. (Emphasis ours).
James Moffatt, in his translation, The Bible: A New Translation,
1935, Harper and Brothers, informs us in his introduction:
Strictly speaking this ought to be rendered
Yahuah which is familiar to modern readers in the erroneous form of Jehovah.
Were this version intended for students of the original, there would be no
hesitation whatever in printing Yahuah.
Although Moffatt substitutes the title, The Eternal in the place of the
Name of Yahuah, he fully admits a
distinct loss of meaning in this.
The Encyclopedia Judaica, Volume 7, page 680 states
The true pronunciation of the Name YHWH was
never lost. Several early
Greek writers of the Christian Church testify that the Name was pronounced
The Hebrew-Aramaic-English Dictionary, by
Marcus Jastrow, Volume 1, page 576, proves that the abbreviation in the
Targum Onkelos is that of Yahuah's Name
(abbrev. of the Tetragrammaton)
Targ. Ps. 1, 2 (ed. Lag. hwhy);
Snh. X, 28a
top; a. fr. (interch. in eds. with
The book The Meaning of the Qumran Scrolls for the Bible page 164
tells us that in these original writings the Name Yahuah stood alone.
Actually this practice was much earlier, for
one of the frequent discrepancies
between the Massoretic text and the presumed Hebrew
of the Septuagint is whether to read in a
given passage Yahuah alone, or Yahuah Adonai. This inconsistency was
occasioned by the fact that originally Yahuah did stand alone, but that Adonai
tended to be introduced alongside the Tetragrammaton by way of making explicit
the surrogate. This was not understood by the Massoretes, however, who felt
compelled to vocalize both words. Neither was it understood by the scribes of
the Qumran Scrolls, nor even by still earlier translators of the LXX. That
Yahuah originally stood alone in most passages is supported by the fact that, in
Hebrew poetry, the double designation of the Deity usually adds excessive length
to the poetic stich.
So not only do we have proof that the Name Yahuah was written in the
original Holy Scriptures, we have proof that it was spoken by all of Yahuah's
people as well.
Yahuah's Name is written yod-heh-waw-heh
hwhy in Hebrew,
transliterated YHWH in English, but was written and properly pronounced, Yahuah
as these sources show. Notice what The Jewish
Encyclopedia, Volume 12, page 119 states:
It thus becomes
determine with a fair degree of certainty the historical pronunciation of the
tetragrammaton, the results agreeing
with the statement of Ex. iii. 14, in which
"I will be," a phrase which is immediately proceeded by the fuller term "I will
be that I will be," or, as in the English versions, "I am" and "I
am that I am." The name
hwhy is accordingly derived from the
and is regarded as an imperfect.
This passage is
decisive for the pronunciation "Yahuah"; for the etymology was undoubtedly based
on the known word.
The personal Name of the Father of Israyl is written in the Hebrew
Scriptures with the four consonants YHWH, and is referred to as the
Tetragrammaton. At least until the destruction of the First Temple 586 B.C.E.,
Yahuah's Name was pronounced regularly with its proper vowels, as is clear from
the Lachish Letters, written shortly before that day. However, at least by the
third century before our Messiah was born, the pronunciation of the Name Yahuah
was avoided, and Adonai, the Lord, was substituted for it.
The Century Bible, Volume 1, pages
90-91 tells us:
Some time after the return from the
Captivity, and before the beginning of the Christian Era,
the Yahdaim (Jews) came to believe that
the Holy Name Yahuah was too sacred to be uttered on ordinary occasions. It was
said to be pronounced by the High Priest on the Day of Atonement. At
other times, when any one read or quoted aloud from what is called the Old
Testament, the word
Lord, was usually substituted for Yahuah, and similarly the LXX (Septuagint
Version) has Kurios, the Vulgate dominus, and the E.V. Lord, where the Hebrew
has Yahuah. Hebrew was originally written without vowels, but when the
vowel points were added, the vowels of
were written with Yahuah, as a
direction that these words were to be read instead of the word whose consonants
were Yahuah; thus we find the combinations YeHoWah and YeHoWiH. At the
Reformation, the former being the more usual, was sometimes used as the Name of
the (Mighty One) Of Israyl, and owing to ignorance of its history was misread as
Jehovah, a form which has established itself in English, but does not give the
pronunciation of the Holy Name it represents.
The Hiding Of Yahuah's Name
In the Hebrew manuscripts, the religious
scholars conclude there are three major texts of Scripture; the oldest and the
original being the Yahwistic works, which use the Name of Yahuah exclusively.
These works are referred to as the J writings because they contain only the Name
of Yahuah without the pagan titles of El, Elohim or Adonai. In these first
manuscripts, everyone knew instantly the Name of the Creator of all things,
because the minds of those who read it were not confused by reading titles of
pagan Gods (Elohim).
The next text of the Scriptures, coming about
100 years later, incorporated the use of pagan titles, which were adopted from
the Canaanites after the children of Israyl entered the promised land, even
though Yahuah had strictly warned them to stay away from the Godworship of the
people they would come in contact with (Deuteronomy 7:1-5). In direct violation
of Yahuah's commandment not to worship hinder Gods (Elohim) only 100 years later
the Holy Scriptures became polluted with the pagan titles of Elohim, Adonai, God
The pagan word God comes from the word El
(singular—God) or Elohim (plural—Gods).
Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, Volume 1, page 817, we find the
information that El or Elohim simply means demon.
The OT. 1. Daimonism.
equivalent of "demon" (daimon)
in the original sense is simply
The words El-Elohim, like the words Baal-Adonai came
from the Canaanite vocabulary and worship. These Canaanite words were accepted
into the Hebrew language many years after the Yahwist writings of the Holy
Judaica, Volume 7, page 674 tells us:
Most of these terms were employed also by the
Canaanites to designate their pagan gods.
This is not surprising; since on settling in the Promised Land the Patriarchs
and early Israelites made "the language of Canaan" their own (Is. 19:18), the
Hebrew language would naturally use the Canaanite vocabulary for terms
designating their own Deity.
These names of the Canaanites' Gods (Elohim) were
accepted before and during the time of Yeremyah the prophet began his
25 I have heard what the prophets say, who
prophesy lies in My Name, saying; I
have dreamed! I have dreamed!
26 How long will
be in the heart of the prophets who
prophesy lies? Yes, they are
prophets of the deceit of their own minds;
27 Who devise;
plan and scheme,
cause My people to forget My Name
through their dreams, which they tell every man to his neighbor, just as their
Name for Baal;
The word Baal simply means Lord, as is shown in
Unger's Bible Dictionary, page 665.
an early word denoting ownership; hence, absolute control.
It is not properly a (righteous) title...master;
of kings, as the lords of their subjects. (4.) Lord. Master, (Greek Kurios)
Baal (Master) (As noted above, it means Lord)—applied
only to heathen deities (gods), or to man as husband, etc
The Jews out of a superstitious reverence for the Name of Yahuah, always, in
reading, pronounced Adonai where Yahuah
On page 413 of Unger's Bible Dictionary, we
Canaanite word for master, lord, was one of the chief male deities of the
Canaanite Pantheon, now well known from
the religious epic literature discovered at Ras Shamra (an Ugarit of the Amarna
Letters), from 1921-1937.
Smith's Bible Dictionary on pages 195-196 states:
The substitution of
the word Lord
is most (sad); for, while it in no way
represents the meaning of the Sacred Name,
the mind has constantly to guard against a confusion with its lower uses, and,
above all, the direct personal hearing of
the Name on the revelation of Yahuah...is injuriously out of sight.
At the time, the use of these pagan terms was accepted, and used by the copyists
to replace Yahuah's Name, or to identify Him in their writings. However, these
pagan words cannot identify Yahuah our Creator, because they are titles of Satan
and her angels.
Dictionary page 412 states that the word El is a Canaanite word meaning
God or devil.
Dictionary of the Bible, Volume 1,
page 817, under Demonology, says the word Elohim (plural form of El) means
demons or Gods.
Scholars and historians find it quite
remarkable that the people of Yahuah ever accepted appellations such as Adonai
or Elohim in place of the Name Yahuah. Harper's
Bible Dictionary by Paul Achtemeier, page 253 states:
accomodation of El worship by Yahwism was a remarkable occurrence
for Israel was as a rule hostile to the cults of Canaaite gods and goddesses.
The Encyclopedia Judaica, Volume 7
page 680, tells us a very important fact about Yahuah's Name.
The personal name... written in the Hebrew Bible with the four consonants YHWH
and is referred to as the "Tetragrammaton." At least until the destruction of
the First Temple in 586 B.C.E. this name was regularly pronounced with its
proper vowels, as is clear from the Lachish Letters, written shortly before that
date. But at least by the third century
B.C.E. the pronunciation of the name YHWH was avoided and Adonai,"the Lord,"was
substituted for it.
Notice what they have written concerning the Name Yahuah from
The Torah: A Modern Commentary, by Gunther
Plaut, page 31 and page 426.
is the unique, personal name of
the Creator and the name most frequently used in the Bible. The Torah gives the
in Exod. 3:14. The original pronunciation was most likely Yahuah (hwhy),
but since Jewish tradition permitted the name to be voiced only by the High
Priest it became customary, after the destruction of the Second Temple, to
substitute the word Adonai (meaning "my Lord") when reading
The Masoretes who vocalized the Hebrew text therefore took the vowels from the
word Adonai (ynda)
and put them with
to remind the reader not to read Yahuah but Adonai. Hence, all vocalized text of
the Bible now read
A Christian writer of the sixteenth
century who was unaware of this substitution transcribed
as he saw it, namely, as Jehovah, and this has since entered many Christian
Overwhelming scholarly opinion holds that
was in Moses' time pronounced
There is also a shorter form of the Name, Yah (hy),
which may represent the original form from which Yahuah was expanded or may,
contrariwise, be a contraction of the longer ascription. Yahuah occurs sometimes
alone (as in 15:2, 17:16), but more likely in conjunction with proper names like
in Hebrew) and in the doxology,
The Name Yahuah means self-existent, which this source shows. But it also
means perfect righteousness, which is contrary to the meaning of the word God,
which means a mixture of righteousness and evil. Notice the following
Scriptures, which shows the character of Yahuah:
18 Then Mosheh said; Show me now Your
19 And Yahuah said: I will make all My
righteousness pass in front of you; and
I will proclaim My Name, Yahuah
, in your presence. I will have
mercy on whom I will have mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I will have
5 Then Yahuah descended in the cloud, and stood with him there, and proclaimed
the Name of Yahuah.
6 Yahuah passed in front of him, and proclaimed: Yahuah, Yahuah Almighty,
merciful and compassionate, longsuffering, and abounding in righteousness and
7 Keeping mercy for thousands, forgiving iniquity, and transgression, and sin;
but by no means leaving unpunished those who are guilty; Who visits the
sin of the fathers upon the children and the children's children, to the third
and fourth generation.
They have substituted (among many other names and titles) Baal, the Babylonians
God (el) and Adonay, the Canaanite God (El)of the Phoencians for the holy Name
of our Creator Yahuah. The substitution of Yahuah's Name with the names of pagan
Gods (Elohim) has brought immeasurable harm. Such names as Lord, God, Jesus and
Christ in no way represent the meaning of the name revealed by Yahuah our
Heavenly Father to Mosheh, and to the ancient Hebrews. By employing these names,
the people unknowingly turn the worship of Yahuah into that of God (elohim)
and actually ascribe the loving and merciful characteristics of the Father of
Israyl, to the pagan Gods (Elohim).
The New International Version Interlinear Hebrew-English Old Testament,
elects to use Yahuah's Name where it is written in the Hebrew text. In Volume 1,
page 26 of the Introduction is found this statement:
Yahuah, the personal Name of (the Creator) is
always translated Yahuah, against the practice in the NIV in rendering it as
Lord. On the one hand, this prevents
confusion of the Name with the title (Adonai) my Lord, for
the idea of lord is not an integral element of
the Name. On the other hand, it may be
the use of Yahuah in this work will encourage the reader to
use the personal Name of (Yahuah) in prayer and
praise, as is intended by the most common imperative in the Scriptures:
(HalleluYahuah!) Psalm 104:35: Praise Yahuah!
Importance Placed On Yahuah's Name!
The Holy Name of our Father and Creator,
Yahuah is the one and only Name by which
the Creator is known throughout the Holy
Surely righteousness and mercy will follow us
all the days of our lives; an we will dwell in
the House of Yahuahforever!
They that know your Name will put their trust in You! Those who seek You,
You will not forsake!
Let men know that You, whose Name alone is Yahuah, are the Supreme Head
over all the earth!
For i am Yhweh your Father, the
Holy One of Israyl, your
Following is a list of only a few of the Scriptures which show the
glorification of Yahuah's Name in His Book:
Psalm 68:4, Exodus 17:8-15, Exodus 15:26, Judges 6:24, Genesis 22:13-14, Acts
2:21, Yeremyah 23:6, Proverbs 30:4, Isayah 42:8, Hosheyah 2:17, Hebrews 2:12,
Psalm 22:22, I Kings 18:21, Yahchanan 12:13, Yahchanan 14:13-14, Acts 4:12.
Throughout the Holy Scriptures, you can read of the importance placed on
the Name of Yahuah. Knowing and using our Creator's Name in worship and study
has been important for each generation, for Yahuah is the only Being Who can
I Timothy 6:16—
who alone has immortality,
dwelling in the light which no man can approach unto; Whom no man has seen, nor
can see; to whom belongs honor
and power everlasting. HalleluYahuah!
This Scripture alone shows the great importance that is attached to knowing our
Heavenly Father's Name. But as this age grows closer to an end and all hope of
life slowly vanishes, it becomes extremely important for people to know our
Creator's Name. It is only those who call with the Name of Yahuah who will be
delivered at this end time.
31 The sun will be turned into darkness,
and the moon into blood, before the great and the terrible day of Yahuah comes.
And whoever will call with the Name of Yahuah
will be delivered; for in Mount Zion
in Yerusalem there will be deliverance, as Yahuah has said, among the remnant
who has escaped of those
whom Yahuah calls.
How will Yahuah, our Creator, hear us if we continue
to call upon Him with the titles of pagan Gods (Elohim)?
There Is No Denying The Greatness Of Yahuah's
There is simply no denying the importance of
the Name of Yahuah, to Yahuah's people. The simple fact is that if we are not,
or will not become, willing to invoke and be called with Yahuah's Name, we have
no hope at all for any salvation. The holy men of old, we supposedly look to as
our teachers and examples, called with the Name of Yahuah. Why then are we still
so stubborn? We must obey Yahuah's every word and heed the examples of the holy
people of old, to call with Yahuah's Name.
A true "devout" Israyli will not mention the
names of pagan gods, but will only call on Yahuah. Notice what is written in
The Jewish Encyclopedia, Volume 9, page 160.
The devout Israelite will not take the name of a
false god upon his lips (Ex. xxiii. 13;
Josh. xxiii. 7; Hosea ii. 16-17; Ps. xvi. 4).
To make mention of YHWH's name is to asse.
confidence in His strength and present
and efficient aid. The name excites
emotions of love, joy, and praise. (Ps.
v. 11; vii. 17; ix. 2; xx. 1, 7). That name is, therefore, especially connected
with the altar or sanctuary, the place
where Yahuah records His name (Ex. xx.
24), or "the place where Yahuah shall
choose out of all your tribes to put His name there."
(Deut. xii. 5; comp. I Kings viii. 16, 29; ix.. 3; Jer. vii. 12).
The Temple is "the place of the name of Yahuah
of hosts, the mount Zion." (Isa. xviii.
The Encyclopedia Britannica,
Volume 23, page 867, also tells us about the
meaning of Yahuah's Name to
This presence and power of Yahuah is stressed
in the frequent biblical phrase "Yahuah Sabaoth," "Yahuah of hosts," those hosts
both earthly and heavenly which Yahuah uses to establish his sovereignty over
Israel, and through Israel over the whole world.
The name Yahuah was thus for the faithful
Israelite a never-failing source of confidence, power and joy.
Yahuah is, most certainly, our Father and the source of our salvation. He
will give salvation to those who follow Him completely, refusing to bow to or
serve God (any Gods) at all. There is overwhelming proof that the words El and
Elohim were the very words the pagan Canaanites used for worshipping their own
Gods. It is obvious from the study of the etymology of the Hebrew language, that
the Children of Israyl made the language of Canaan their own because of the
snares of the Canaanites and their own disobedience to Yahuah. As we have seen,
the word El has been translated as God in many Scriptures, but it is of vital
importance to know that this word has also been translated power in three
It is in my
to do you harm, but Yahuah, the Father
of your father, spoke to me last
night, saying: Be careful that you speak to Yaaqob neither blessings nor curses.
Do not refuse help to one who has need of it when it is in the power of
your hand to give it.
Woe to those who devise iniquity, who plot evil upon their beds! When the
morning dawns they carry out their plans, because it is in their power
to do so.
In each of these three verses, the word El has been translated
which is power of man, not Yahuah. El, word #410 in the Hebrew Dictionary of
Strong's Exhaustive Concordance comes from
another Hebrew word #352, which is the same as #193. The root of these words
means powerful, mighty or strength.
The Encyclopedia Judaica, Volume 7, page 674, gives us
the following information.
oldest Semitic term for God is `el
(corresponding to Akkadian
Canaanite 'el or 'il,
and Arabic 'el
as an element in personal names). The
etymology of the word is obscure. It is
commonly thought that the term derived from a root `yl or `wl
meaning "to be powerful."
Strong's Exhaustive Concordance
Hebrew Dictionary confirms this
statement. El, comes from word #352, ayil, which means:
short. from 352; strength;
as adj. mighty;
espec. the Almighty (but used also of any
(god), x goodly, x great, idol, might (-y one),
strong. Cop. names in "-el."
from the same as 193; prop. strength;
hence anything strong;
spec. a chief
(politically); also a ram (from his
strength); a pilaster
(as a strong support); an oak or other strong
(man), lintel, oak, post, ram, tree.
Ayil is from the same unused root
as uwl, ool, meaning:
from an unused root
mean. to twist. i.e. (by impl.) be strong;
together); also powerful:—mighty,
We see that King David, a man after Yahuah's own heart, acknowledged that Yahuah
was his strength, but certainly not a God.
But You, O Yahuah, be
not far from Me! O My Strength, make haste to help Me!
Strength in this verse is word
#360 in the Hebrew Dictionary of Strong's
Exhaustive Concordance, and means
power, by implication, protection, strength.
fem. of 353; power;
by imp. protection:—strength.
comes from the word eyal, which comes
from ayil, which comes from the same
unused root uwl, which means:
a var. of 352; strength;
Psalm 22:1, "My Yl" and
Psalm 22:19, "My Strength," have the same
root word, and the same meaning: My Strength.
We have already read that El and Elohim were
Canaanite words relating to Canaanite gods that Yahuah condemns. Notice the
definitions of El and Elohim.
la 'el, ale;
short. from 352; strength; as adj. mighty; espec. the Almighty
(but used also of any deity):—God, (god), x goodly, x great, idol, might
(-y one), power, strong. Cop. names in "-el."
plur., of 433. gods
in the ordinary sense; but spec. used (in the
plur. thus, esp. with the art.) of the supreme
occasionally applied by way of deference to
and sometimes as a superlative:—angels,
x exceeding, God (gods) (-dess, -ly), x (very) great, judges, x mighty.
The direct work of the elohist writer has been to place the names of the Gods of
Canaan, into the Holy Scriptures. The Canaanites took the idols of strength and
power, contained in the primitive roots yl and wl, and made Gods out of these
concepts. Israylites have fallen for this deception and now worship Elohim
instead of Yahuah, Who is truly the only source of power (Isayah 44:6,8).
Gesenius Hebrew-Chaldee Lexicon,
page 45, shows us more about the word EL.
m.—(1) prop. part. of the verb
No. 2, strong, mighty, a mighty one,
(comp. note). (2) might, strength)
prop. that which is strong. Lamed in this phrase marks state or condition. The
nature of this phrase has been but little understood by those who would here
Notice the note by the author of this Lexicon
Following most etymologists, I have above derived
from the root
but to give my opinion more exactly, it appears rather to be a primitive word,
the etymology being however adapted to the root
so that to Hebrews this word would
present the notion of strength and power.
From man's own writings, we see this la (el) from the
root lWa (ool) indicates strength, not God, as Satan has deceived this world
Gesenius Hebrew-Chaldee Lexicon,
page 20, also gives us this information on ayil (lya)
and auwl (lWa):
a root not used as a verb, but of wide extent in the derivatives. (2)
to strength and power
whence lA strong, God;
hla terebinth (as if "robust tree");
/nla oak; also
strength, aid. The notion of strength and power
According to Gesenius Hebrew-Chaldee Lexicon
To The Old Testament, page 695, this word El
originally came from the root words wl
and yl. Man's own writings say these words mean strength, power, strong.
These writings also say that the words
elohim-god, were the work of a later and
the only source of power we can turn to in time of need,
and there has never been a time we needed
Yahuah more than this present age with the dangers we are facing.
What Does Yahuah Tell Us To Do?
5 Yahuah your Father Himself will drive
them out of your way. He will push them out from in front of you, and you will
take possession of their land, just as Yahuah your Father has promised you.
6 Therefore, be very strong to carefully
obey and do all that is written in the Book of the Law
Mosheh, without turning aside either to the right or to the left;
7 By not mingling with these nations that
are left with you: by not pronouncing the names of their gods (elohim), nor
causing anyone to administer a vow in their names. You must not serve them, and
you must not bow down to them.
8 You are to hold fast to Yahuah your
Father, just as you have until now.
Yahuah has told us in no uncertain terms not to even say the names of their Gods
to worship them. How much plainer could this be? Yahuah has also shown us the
words El and Elohim, God and Lord are the names of the very Canaanite Gods He
told us not to mention.
At the time Yahusha was leading the Children of Israyl, they had not
worshipped Gods, they had not bowed themselves to, nor had they served the
Lord—they had not forsaken Yahuah. Yahuah was their (and our) strength, head and
Father. Yahuah was not then, nor has He ever been, a mere God. That is why we
must return the prefixes and suffixes El-God to Yl-strength-Father, to give
honor to Yahuah by not making mention of the names of their Gods out of our
mouths. Yahuah only allows those who submit to Him to carry His Name.
My people will know My Name;
Therefore they will know
in that day that I
am He Who speaks. Behold,
Are we not Yahuah's
Then, when will we begin to behave like Yahuah's people
stop denying His Name?